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ESTIMATION OF PM2.5 AND BLACK CARBON EMISSIONS FROM ON-ROAD VEHICULAR SOURCES IN MANIZALES, COLOMBIA.
wendy Julieth hernandez

Última modificación: 06/06/2019

Resumen


Currently, studies in Latin American cities about emissions of PM2.5 and Black Carbon (BC) are limited. These pollutants are of special interest in urban environments, however, the lack of information about their emissions to the atmosphere establishes a challenge because of the limited information available for estimating fluxes from important sources such as vehicular traffic.

In the city of Manizales Colombia (398830 population and 2150 m.a.s.l.), the previous emission inventory (EI) from on-road vehicular sources were based on the application of IVE methodology, which was developed by the ISSRC (International Sustainable System Research Center). However, the pollutants estimated by this methodology do not include the fraction of PM2.5 and the amount of BC emitted by vehicles. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine PM2.5 and BC emissions from on-road vehicular sources in order to improve previous EI estimated in the city for the years 2014 and updated to 2017.

The applied methodology was proposed by the ERG (Eastern Research Group, Inc)1 through three levels of application depending of the vehicle information available in the area of study. Factors such as technology, distance traveled, type and consumption of fuel could be included in the estimation. Level 1 comprises fuel consumption and is combined with emission factors of PM2.5 and speciation factors for BC which is calculated from PM2.5 fluxes. Level 2 considers the vehicle technology distribution and speciation factors are provided according to each vehicular technology. Level 3 (the most detailed) takes into account more specific activity information combining crop-specific fuel loadings, modeled emission rates, technology-specific fuel consumption with specific data of the place of study as vehicle kilometer traveled.


The results suggest that the ratio between PM2.5 and BC vary considerably according to vehicular type (mainly trucks and buses), and the technology used mainly for Euro I. The results showed that emission percentage of PM2.5 to PM10 comprised around 70%.The ratio of BC to PM2.5 was around 50% for Manizales. Finally, it was observed a reduction in the emissions between 2017 and 2014 probably related with the change of vehicular technology, mainly for motorcycles.